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  The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect

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Jennifer Bouyazbek



Number of posts : 40
Registration date : 2011-02-08

PostSubject: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Thu May 19, 2011 12:32 am

This article is found online on the magazine's website. Heres a link: http://discovermagazine.com/2011/may/21-the-brain-is-made-of-its-own-architects

In the 1940s, the Nobel prize winning neurobiologist Roger Sperry performed some of the most important brain surgeries in the history of science. His patients are newts ! He pryed out their eyes, twisted them 180 degrees, then put them back in place. If this was done on a human, they would be permanently blind... using newts was a good idea. These newts have an amazing ability to renew and regrow their damaged nerves. A month later, they could see. Doing this experiment, the newts were looking with their eyes completely fine, but with upside down vision !!

The experiment revealed that nerve cells have a big capacity for wiring themselves. Neurons grow branches known as dendrites for receiving signals, and sprout long outgrowths called axons to relay the signals to other neurons. The only difference was that the post-operation eyes delivered inverted images, because the eyes had been rotated but the neuronal connections that they made unfolded as normal.

Of course, this happens in humans as well as neurons fail to wire correctly makes our bodies and brains go crazy in many ways. A disorder called Duane syndrome, is when the nerves controlling the eye muscles send some of their axons to the wrong destinations.

To treat wiring disorders, scientists are trying to understand how neurons form circuits. But almost 70 years after Sperry’s newt surgery, this question remains one of the deepest mysteries in neuro­science.

This is something we can hope to be a more important research where in the future some scientists or researchers can find a solve for this big mystery and who knows, maybe even get rid of blindness !
Very Happy
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Taylor Lashyn



Number of posts : 82
Registration date : 2011-02-17

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Thu May 19, 2011 2:22 am

The brain is definitly a complex organ that is barely understood. This advancement, however, is very beneficial - especially if we were to perhaps use it to prevent future blindness. The fact that the brain wire itself is fascinating and if we were able to incoorperate this ability to wire into patients that are blind, maybe we can help them see again. I think the brain is something which requires tremendous amounts of research still to understand fully or near fully how it works and its capacity. I think our brain has potential which is waiting to be exposed
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AnthonyMattia



Number of posts : 46
Registration date : 2011-02-21

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Thu May 19, 2011 4:21 pm

As Taylor said, there is so much to our brains that us humans have yet to discover. The potential that each of us holds in our own head to solve some of today's biggest problems is just insane! I agree that If this mystery is solved than we could possibly be able to solve many eye disorders in humans. It would be great if scientists could figure out a way for individuals with sight impairments to have their neurons re-wire themselves, potentially allowing them to see again. If they figured out how to do this for the neurons connected to our eyes, could it potentially help us cure paralysis in other areas of the body controlled by neurons?
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Jennifer Bouyazbek



Number of posts : 40
Registration date : 2011-02-08

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Thu May 19, 2011 6:15 pm

Is there such thing as a bionic eye? Is it or could it be possible for a person who is blind to see again?
Very good question, some researchers have been able to produce a very crude image that a blind person was able to see. This early technique only works on certain select cases. As soon as the big mystery is solved, repairing lost vision or even color blindness will not be an impossible thing to achieve after all.
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markmandrusiak

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Number of posts : 37
Registration date : 2011-02-05

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Thu May 19, 2011 11:58 pm

Jennifer, there is a such thing as a bionic eye, although it is only in trial stages and it cannot really "cure" blindness. It only work on people that aren't very blind and they won't be able to see like a non-blind person but rather just be able to detect the light present.
http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern/bionic-eye.htm
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AnthonyMattia



Number of posts : 46
Registration date : 2011-02-21

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Fri May 20, 2011 1:17 am

i have seen stuff on that bionic eye before - really fascinating stuff. It'd be great if something like that would allow people see in full detail. However the odds of that happening are low. I think something like bionic eye would be a great invention, but there would be alot of drawbacks to it - like cost - not being able to use it in water - etc.
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Josh King Konu

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Registration date : 2011-02-09

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Sun May 22, 2011 4:41 am

amazing article i wounder how much more advanced in the eye care system work
and become a great success!
king
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Ashley Bacchus



Number of posts : 64
Registration date : 2011-02-06

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Mon May 23, 2011 1:36 am

First, I just want to say poor newts, they have their eyes taken out and then just put back in, sounds painful. However, this is a pretty interesting article, and once again the way the brain operates just astounds me. It’s so perplexing, and it makes me wonder if we’ll ever be able to figure out exactly how it works. One little thing could go wrong in your brain and it would cause so many problems, like the example of Duane syndrome, where the axons go to the wrong destination. But the way the axons are able to find their partners within billions of neurons and are able to reconnect and work again is pretty amazing.

I also find it interesting how the neurons actually reconnect. I mean they don’t even look for the right connection they just avoid the wrong ones. And they do it by following a chemical trail and with the aid of guide cells.

And like you all mentioned, it’s a really good start for figuring out how to allow blind people to see again. There’s definitely a long way to go though since taking out the human eye and doing that would make the person go blind. So they need to come up with another way to get the neurons to repair the connections, which is going to take many more years of research.
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Rad.w



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Registration date : 2009-09-08

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Mon May 23, 2011 2:59 pm

Quote :
Neurons grow branches known as dendrites for receiving signals, and sprout long outgrowths called axons to relay the signals to other neurons. The only difference was that the post-operation eyes delivered inverted images, because the eyes had been rotated but the neuronal connections that they made unfolded as normal.

Hopefully this will lead us to disocvering how to help those who have lost their vision! The eye is such a delicate thing and even the slightest damamge can ruin someone's vision for ever. I think that research for vision is really important, because if there is a way that we can link the experiments done with the newts to the experiments being done to humans it could potentially lead to technologies that allow the eye damage to be reversed. I've heard of alot of research into neurons, especially with spinal cord damage, and it's obvious that there are fast growing accomplishments in that area of science so hopefully there will be a chance for human eyes to fix the damages that occur in the eye.
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Paolo Posteraro



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Registration date : 2011-02-21

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Mon May 23, 2011 4:29 pm

our brains are pretty sick reading on the human brain their are many things that i found out

Altitude makes the brain see strange visions – Many religions involve special visions that occurred at great heights. Many effects are attributable to the reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. At 8,000ft or higher, some mountaineers report perceiving unseen companions, seeing light emanating from themselves or others, seeing a second body like their own, and suddenly feeling emotions such as fear. Oxygen deprivation is likely to interfere with brain regions active in visual and face processing, and in emotional events.

A study of one million students in New York showed that students who ate lunches that did not include artificial flavors, preservatives, and dyes did 14% better on IQ tests than students who ate lunches with these additives.

crazy study: London taxi drivers ,famous for knowing all the London streets by heart, have a larger than normal hippocampus, especially the drivers who have been on the job longest. The study suggests that as people memorize more and more information, this part of their brain continues to grow in size

so our brain is pretty sick
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Josh King Konu

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Registration date : 2011-02-09

PostSubject: Re: The Brain Is Made of Its Own Architect   Mon May 23, 2011 5:44 pm

HAHA YEAH THATS PRETTY SICK

IM JUST CURIOUS TO KNOW HOW EXACLTLY THESE THINGS WORK LIKE HOW DOES ONE PART OF THE BRAIN EFFECT THE BODY I TOOK BIO BEFORE I KNOW ABOUT THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS BUT AFTER SEEING THAT PRESENTATION ON THAT MICROSCOPE MAYBE THERES SOMETHING DEEPER THEN THE NEURONS MAYBE SOMETHING SMALLER MAYBE ON THE QUANTOM LEVEL??!?!?!?!

king
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